Philosophy, June 8th

“Now most people find that the things which give them pleasure conflict, because they are not pleasant by nature; but lovers of beauty find pleasure in things that are pleasant by nature, and virtuous actions are of this kind, so that they are pleasant not only to this type of person but also in themselves. So, their life does not need to have pleasure attached to it as a sort of accessory but contains its own pleasure in itself. Indeed, we may go further and assert that anyone who does not delight in fine actions is not even a good man; for nobody would say that a man is just unless he enjoys acting justly, nor liberal unless he enjoys liberal actions, and similarly in all the other cases. If this is so, virtuous actions must be pleasurable in themselves.” – Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics

“In proportion as capitalist production is developed in a country, so, in the same proportion, do the national intensity and productivity of labor there rise above the international level. The different quantities of commodities of the same kind, produced in different countries in the same working time, have, therefore, unequal international values, which are expressed in different prices, i.e. in sums of money varying according to international values. The relative value of money will therefore be less in the nation with a more developed capitalist mode of production than in the nation with a less developed capitalism. It follows then that nominal wages, the equivalent of labor-power expressed in money, will also be higher in the first nation than in the second; but this by no means proves that the same can be said of real wages, i.e. the means of subsistence placed at the disposal of the worker.” – Karl Marx, Capital

“Therefore, is there, on this earth, no greater enemy of man (after the devil) than a gripe-money, and usurer, for he wants to be God over all men. Turks, soldiers, and tyrants are also bad men, yet must they let the people live, and confess that they are bad, and enemies, and do, nay, must, now and then show pity to some. But a usurer and money-glutton, such a one would have the whole world perish of hunger and thirst, misery and want, so far as in him lies, so that he may have all to himself, and every one may receive from him as from a God, and be his serf for ever more. [This is what gladdens his heart, and also] to wear fine cloaks, golden chains, rings, to wipe his mouth, to be deemed and taken for a worthy, pious man.” – Martin Luther

“Communal property – always distinct from the State property just dealt with – was an old Teutonic institution which lived on under cover of feudalism. We have seen how the forcible usurpation of this, generally accompanied by the turning of arable into pastureland, begins at the end of the 15th and extends into the 16th century. But, at that time, the process was carried on by means of individual acts of violence against which legislation, for a hundred and fifty years, fought in vain. The advance made by the 18th century shows itself in this, that now the law itself becomes the instrument of the theft of the people’s land, although the large farmers make use of their little independent methods as well.” – Karl Marx, Capital

“And taking out the contents of his wallet, they ate together with great harmony and satisfaction; but, being desirous of finding some place for their night’s lodging, they finished their humble repast in a hurry, and mounting their beasts, put on at a good rate, in order to reach some village before it should be dark: but, the hope of gratifying that desire failed them with daylight, just when they happened to be near a goatherd’s hut, in which they resolved to pass the night: and in the same proportion, that Sancho was disgusted at not being able to reach some village, his master was rejoiced at an opportunity of sleeping under the cope of heaven; because he looked upon every occasion of this kind, as an act of possession, that strengthened the proof of his knight-errantry.” – Miguel de Cervantes, Don Quixote

Published by jim

Curator of things...

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