Philosophy, June 20th

“Thus, when the industrial cycle is in its phase of crisis, a general fall in the price of commodities is expressed as a rise in the relative value of money, and, in the phase of prosperity, a general rise in the price of commodities is expressed as a fall in the relative value of money. The so-called Currency School conclude from this that with high prices too much money is in circulation, with low prices too little. Their ignorance and complete misunderstanding of the facts are worthily paralleled by the economists, who interpret the above phenomena of accumulation by saying that in one case there are too few, and in the other, too many wage-laborers’ in existence.” – Karl Marx, Capital

“During the second period of the labor process, that in which his labor is no longer necessary labor, the worker does indeed expend labor-power, he does work, but his labor is no longer necessary labor, and he creates no value for himself. He creates surplus-value which, for the capitalist, has all the charms of something created out of nothing. This part of the working day I call surplus labor-time, and to the labor expended during that time I give the name of surplus labor. It is just as important for a correct understanding of surplus-value to conceive it as merely a congealed quantity of surplus labor-time, as nothing but objectified surplus labor, as it is for a proper comprehension of value in general to conceive it as merely a congealed quantity of so many hours of labor, as nothing but objectified labor. What distinguishes the various economic formations of society – the distinction between for example a society based on slave-labor and a society based on wage-labor – is the form in which this surplus labor is in each case extorted from the immediate producer, the worker.” – Karl Marx, Capital

“The State shall take necessary measures to rehabilitate those in need of special education so as to render such people useful to society.” – The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey

“We know that the means of production and subsistence, while they remain the property of the immediate producer, are not capital. They become capital only when they serve at the same time as means of exploitation and subjection of the laborer. But this capitalist soul of theirs is so intimately wedded, in the head of the political economist, to their material substance, that he christens them capital under all circumstances, even when they are its exact opposite.” – Karl Marx, Capital

My meaning, Sancho, is, that the desire of fame is a most active principle in the human breast. What, do’st thou imagine was the motive that prevailed on Horatio to throw himself from the bridge, armed at all points, into the depth of the river Tyber? What induced Mutius to burn his hand and arm? What impelled Curtius to dart himself into the flaming gulph, which opened in the midst of Rome? What prompted Caesar to pass the Rubicon, in spite of all the unfavorable omens that appeared? And, to give you a more modern instance, what consideration bored the ships, and let on shore, encompassed with enemies, those valiant Spaniards, in the new world, under the conduct of the most courteous Cortez. All these, and many other great and various exploits, are, were and shall be performed, in consequence of that desire of fame, which flatters mortals with a share of that immortality which they deem the merited reward of their renowned achievements: although, we catholic Christian knights-errant, ought to pay greater attention to that glory which is to come, and eternally survives within the eternal and celestial mansions, than to the vanity of that fame which is obtained in this present, perishable state, and which, considered in its longest duration, must end at length, with the world itself, which hath its appointed period. Wherefore, Sancho, our works must not exceed the limits prescribed by the Christian religion, which we profess. We must, in slaying giants, extirpate pride; get the better of envy by benevolence and virtue; resist anger with patience and forbearance; conquer gluttony and sloth by temperance and watchfulness; luxury and lewdness by our fidelity to those whom we constitute mistresses of our inclination; and idleness by travelling through all parts of the world, in quest of opportunities to evince ourselves not only Christians, but, moreover, renowned knights.” – Miguel de Cervantes, Don Quixote

Published by jim

Curator of things...

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