Philosophy, July 18th

“In order that a man may be able to sell commodities other than his labor-power, he must of course possess means of production, such as raw materials, instruments of labor, etc. No boots can be made without leather. He also requires the means of subsistence. Nobody – not even a practitioner of Zukunftsmusik (‘music of the future’) – can live on the products of the future, or on use-values whose production has not yet been completed; just as on the first day of his appearance on the world’s stage, man must still consume every day, before and while he produces. If products are produced as commodities, they must be sold after they have been produced, and they can only satisfy the producer’s needs after they have been sold. The time necessary for sale must be counted as well as the time of production.” – Karl Marx, Capital

“The great evil of the factory system as at present conducted,’ says the first report of the Central Board of the Commission, on 28 June 1833, ‘has appeared to us to be that it entails the necessity of continuing the labor of children to the utmost length of that of the adults. The only remedy for this evil, short of the limitation of the labor of adults, which would, in our opinion, create an evil greater than that which is sought to be remedied, appears to be the plan of working double sets of children.'” – Karl Marx, Capital

“But as it is we find that although they have the power to stimulate and encourage those of the young who are liberal-minded, and although they can render a generous and truly idealistic character susceptible of virtue, they are incapable of impelling the masses towards human perfection. For it is the nature of the many to be ruled by fear rather than by shame, and to refrain from evil not because of the disgrace but because of the punishments. Living under the sway of their feelings, they pursue their own pleasures and the means of obtaining them, and shun the pains that are their opposites; but of that which is fine and truly pleasurable they have not even a conception, since they have never had a taste of it. What discourse could ever reform people like that? To dislodge by argument habits long embedded in the character is a difficult if not impossible task. We should probably be content if the combination of all the means that are supposed to make us good enables us to attain some portion of goodness.” – Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics

“Probably it is not right at all to follow the changes of a man’s fortunes, because success and failure in life do not depend on these; they are merely complementing, as we said, of human life. It is virtuous activities that determine our happiness, and the opposite kind that produce the opposite effect.” – Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics

“And now look again and see what will naturally follow if the prisoners are released and disabused of their error. At first, when any of them is liberated and compelled suddenly to stand up and turn his neck round and walk and look towards the light, he will suffer sharp pains; the glare will distress him, and he will be unable to see the realities of which in his former state he had seen the shadows; and then conceive someone saying to him, that what he saw before was an illusion, but that now, when he is approaching nearer to being and his eye is turned towards more real existence, he has a clearer vision – what will be his reply? And you may further imagine that his instructor is pointing to the objects as they pass and requiring him to name them – will he not be perplexed? Will he not fancy that the shadows which he formerly saw are truer than the objects which are now shown to him?” – Plato, The Republic

“We Communists have been reproached with the desire of abolishing the right of personally acquiring property as the fruit of a man’s own labor, which property is alleged to be the groundwork of all personal freedom, activity, and independence.” – Karl Marx, The Communist Manifesto

“”Liberal” was first used in a political sense about 1815, to denote the advocates of liberty as opposed to the “servile” who believed in State-control. And yet the members of the club avowedly uphold State-interference in all things and dub the doctrine of laissez faire the creed of selfishness.” – Benjamin Tucker, Instead of a Book

“Money is necessarily a thing which belongs to society. This is one of the great truths of civilization which has been generally overlooked. For this whole question of the rightfulness of interest turns on the question, “What is money?” So long as the people shall continue to consider money as a thing of itself objectively – why, there is no hope for humanity.” – Benjamin Tucker, Instead of a Book

“Sir, I am a quiet, meek, peaceable man, and can digest any injury, be it never so hard; for, I have a wife and small children to maintain and bring up: wherefore, let me also apprize, (though’ I cannot lay my commands upon your worship) that I will in no shape whatever, use my sword against either knight or knave; and that henceforward, in the fight of God, I forgive all injuries, past, present, or to come, which I have already received, at this present time suffer, or may hereafter undergo, from any person whatsoever, high or low, rich or poor, gentle or simple, without exception to rank or circumstance.” – Miguel de Cervantes, Don Quixote

Published by jim

Curator of things...

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