Philosophy, July 22nd

“It seems, then, as we have said, that the originating cause of actions is a man, and the field of deliberation is what is practicable for the agent; and that the actions are for the sake of something else. The object of deliberation, then, cannot be the end, but must be the means to ends.” – Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics

“The exchange between capital and labor at first presents itself to our perceptions in the same way as the sale and purchase of all other commodities. The buyer gives a certain sum of money, the seller an article which is something other than money. The legal mind recognizes here at most a material difference, expressed in the legally equivalent formulae: ‘Do ut des, do ut facias, facio ut des, facio ut facias [I give, that you may give; I give, that you may do; I do, that you may give; I do, that you may do.]” – Karl Marx, Capital

“For the sake, therefore, of public morals, of bringing up an orderly population, and of giving the great body of the people a reasonable enjoyment of life, it is much to be desired that in all trades some portion of every working day should be reserved for rest and leisure.” – Leonard Horner

“Clearly life is a thing shared also by plants, and we are looking for man’s proper function; so, we must exclude from our definition the life that consists in nutrition and growth. Next in order would be a sort of sentient life; but this too we see is shared by horses and cattle and animals of all kinds. There remains, then, a practical life of the rational part.” – Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics

“The production of one man by another ad infinitum is accidental, whereas the relation of before and after in it is essential. The agent who has no beginning either for his existence or for those acts of his which he performs without an instrument, has no first instrument either to perform those acts of his without beginning which by their nature need an instrument.” – Averroes, The Incoherence of the Incoherence

“But imagine one of these owners, the master say of some fifty slaves, together with his family and property and slaves, carried off by a god into the wilderness, where there are no freemen to help him – will he not be in an agony of fear lest he and his wife and children should be put to death by his slaves?” – Plato, The Republic

“Nothing proves more clearly than this fact the natural and inevitable solidarity – this law of sociability – which binds all men together, as each of us can verify daily, both on himself and on all the men whom he knows. But, if this social power exists, why has it not sufficed hitherto to moralize, to humanize men? Simply because hitherto this power has not been humanized itself; it has not been humanized because the social life of which it is ever the faithful expression is based, as we know, on the worship of divinity, not on respect for humanity; on authority, not on liberty; on privilege, not on equality; on the exploitation, not on the brotherhood of men; on iniquity and falsehood, not on justice and truth. Consequently, its real action, always in contradiction of the humanitarian theories which it professes, has constantly exercised a disastrous and depraving influence. It does not repress vices and crimes; it creates them. Its authority is consequently a divine, anti-human authority; its influence is mischievous and baleful. Do you wish to render its authority and influence beneficent and human? Achieve the social revolution. Make all needs really solidary and cause the material and social interests of each to conform to the human duties of each. And to this end there is but one means: Destroy all the institutions of Inequality; establish the economic and social equality of all, and on this basis will arise the liberty, the morality, the solidary humanity of all.” – Michael Bakunin, God and the State

“Sir, I am a quiet, meek, peaceable man, and can digest any injury, be it never so hard; for, I have a wife and small children to maintain and bring up: wherefore, let me also apprize, (though’ I cannot lay my commands upon your worship) that I will in no shape whatever, use my sword against either knight or knave; and that henceforward, in the fight of God, I forgive all injuries, past, present, or to come, which I have already received, at this present time suffer, or may hereafter undergo, from any person whatsoever, high or low, rich or poor, gentle or simple, without exception to rank or circumstance.” – Miguel de Cervantes, Don Quixote

Published by jim

Curator of things...

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